SMORGON


SMORGON
SMORGON (Pol. Smorgonie), town in Grodno district, Belarus, passed from Poland to Russia in 1793; between 1921 and 1945 within independent Poland. From the 16th century until the second half of the 19th century, the town was the private property of the princes of Radziwill. Jewish settlement in Smorgon is believed to date from the early 17th century. From 1628 the Jews of Smorgon paid their taxes to the community administration of Grodno. In 1631 the community of Smorgon became the center of a galil (province) within the framework of the Council of Lithuania (see Councils of the lands ). The autonomous status of the community was confirmed in 1651. In 1765 there were 649 Jews in the community of Smorgon who paid the poll tax. During the 1830s a Jewish agricultural settlement, Karka, with 30 farmsteads, was established near the town (on the eve of World War I, 40 Jewish families there worked on the land). In 1847 there were 1,621 Jews living in Smorgon. In the 1860s a tanning industry was begun in the town as a result of Jewish initiative. In addition to this, the Jews of the town earned their livelihoods from carpentry, the knitting of socks, the baking of bagels (which were famous throughout Russia), retail trade, and peddling. The bund gained many adherents among the workers in Smorgon. From 1899 a Zionist organization was active in the town and in 1905 a branch of the SS (Zionist Socialist Workers' Party ) was established. In 1897 there were 6,743 Jews living in Smorgon (76% of the population). On the eve of World War I, there were two battei midrash, seven synagogues, three elementary yeshivot, and a Jewish hospital in the town. A section of the town's Jewish population were Ḥabad Ḥasidim. In 1915, during World War I, many of the Jews in Smorgon were expelled to the Russian interior. Jewish refugee tanners from Smorgon founded the tanning industries in Kharkov, Rostov, and Bogorodsk. When Smorgon reverted to independent Poland after World War I the Jewish refugees began to return to their destroyed houses. Between the two world wars, a Hebrew tarbut school, a drama circle (Bamati), sports clubs, Zionist youth circles, and branches of Po'alei Zion , He-Ḥalutz and betar functioned in the town. The spiritual leaders of the community during the early second half of the 18th century included the rabbi of the community Ḥayyim Cohen. In 1827–28 the town rabbi was the renowned manasseh b. joseph of ilya , a native of Smorgon. Subsequently, a dynasty of rabbis descended from R. Leib Shapira established themselves in the town. From 1910 to 1917 Judah Leib Gordin, the author of Teshuvat Yehudah, held rabbinical office in the town. nahum slouschz , the author aaron abraham kabak , the Yiddish poet moshe kulbak , and david raziel , commander of the Irgun Ẓevai Le'ummi , were natives of Smorgon. (Arthur Cygielman) -Holocaust Period In September 1939 the Red Army entered the town and a Soviet administration was established until the outbreak of the German-Soviet war in June 1941, when the Germans occupied the town. The Germans established two ghettos in different places there. In the summer of 1942 some Jews were sent to Kovno (kaunas ) and shared the fate of that community while the others were sent to Ponary near Vilna, and were killed there. After the war, the Jewish community of Smorgon was not reconstituted. An organization of former residents of Smorgon was formed in Israel. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Smorgon, Meḥoz Vilna: Sefer Edut ve-Zikkaron (1965); S. Dubnow, Pinkas ha-Medinah (1925), index; Y. Rivlin, in: Yahadut Lita, 1 (1959), 459; A. Tartakower, Toledot Tenu'at ha-Ovedim ha-Yehudit, 1 (1929), 36.

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Smorgon — may refer to the following:* Smarhon (Smorgon), a city in Belarus * FC Smorgon is a Belarusian football club based in Smarhon (Smorgon) * Smarhon (air base), a Soviet Air Force base in Belarus * David Smorgon, Australian businessman, President of …   Wikipedia

  • SMORGON — SMORGON, Australian business dynasty. The Smorgon family, one of the most successful in contemporary Australia, lived in the Ukraine. Poor before the 1917 Revolution, they temporarily became prosperous during the NEP era under Lenin but… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Smorgon — Smarhon Смаргонь Сморгон Smorgonie Basisdaten Staat …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Smorgon’ — Sp Smurgáinys Ap Смаргонь/Smargon’ baltarusiškai (gudiškai) Ap Сморгонь/Smorgon’ rusiškai L V Baltarusija …   Pasaulio vietovardžiai. Internetinė duomenų bazė

  • Smorgon — /ˈsmɔgən/ (say smawguhn) noun Victor, 1913–2009, Australian industrialist, born in Ukraine …   Australian English dictionary

  • Smorgon Steel — was an Australian steel manufacturing business established in the 1980 s by the Smorgon family of Melbourne. The chairman of the company board was Graham Smorgon.Smorgon Steel was noteworthy as the first company to attempt to compete with BHP… …   Wikipedia

  • Smorgon family — The Smorgon family may refer to:*Graham Smorgon *David SmorgonThe family is famous for its establishment of Smorgon Steel …   Wikipedia

  • Graham Smorgon — infobox person nationality = AustralianGraham Smorgon is a prominent Australian businessman and a member of the Smorgon family one of Australia s wealthiest and most powerful and influential families.He has chaired numerous organisations,… …   Wikipedia

  • David Smorgon — (born 8 May 1947) is an Australian businessman. He is most noted for holding the presidency of the Western Bulldogs, an Australian rules football club in the Australian Football League (AFL). He has been a passionate supporter of the club since… …   Wikipedia

  • FK Smorgon — Infobox club sportif FK Smorgon Généralit …   Wikipédia en Français


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.